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Official Name


Land Area



Capital City




Official Languages


Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)


Kingdom of Tonga


747 sq km over 170 dispersed volcanic and coral islands. Five main island groups: Tongatapu, ‘Eua, Ha’apai, Vava’u, and the Niuas


103,036 (2011 Census)


Nuku’alofa, Tongatapu


Christian denominations (Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga, LDS, Catholic, Free Church
of Tonga), and Baha’i


Tongan, English


700,000 sq km

The Kingdom of Tonga, also known as the ‘Friendly Islands’, is made up of 5 island groups: Tongatapu, ‘Eua, Ha’apai, Vava’u and the Niuas (Niuatoputapu and Niuafo’ou).

Tonga is composed of over 170 volcanic and coral islands with a total land area of about 750 sq. kilometers and a population of just over 100,000 people of Polynesian origin. Tonga is a constitutional monarchy with His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou VI as Head of State. The national capital, Nuku'alofa, is located on the main island group of Tongatapu.

Tonga is unique among Pacific nations in never having completely lost its indigenous governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.

The official language in Tonga is Tongan and English. Schooling is compulsory from the ages of 5 to 18, and English is a compulsory subject from primary school onwards. Tonga is one of the highest educated island nations in the Pacific region, with literacy rate of 99% and boasts one of the highest number of PhD holders per population of any nation.

Agriculture is the predominant economic sector in Tonga, contributing approximately 23% of GDP. Tonga has one of the highest rates of subsistence production for own consumption within the Pacific Region. Almost two-thirds of Tongan households are involved in agriculture for subsistence and/or commercial purposes. This high involvement in agriculture has arisen in part due to a unique system of land rights which ensures that all Tongan households have access to plantation land for their exclusive use for farming.


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